Hormonal Replacement Therapy: Medical Uses, Side Effects and Contradictions

Julia Andrew*

Department of Biotechnology, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author:
Julia Andrew
Department of Biotechnology
Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: August 30, 2021; Accepted Date: September 13, 2021; Published Date: September 20, 2021

Citation: Andrew J (2021) Hormonal Replacement Therapy: Medical Uses, Side Effects and Contradictions. J Clin Mol Endocrinol. 2021, 6:5.52

Copyright: © 2021 Andrew J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology


Chemical substitution treatment (HRT), otherwise called menopausal chemical treatment or postmenopausal chemical treatment, is a type of chemical treatment used to treat indications related with female menopause. These manifestations can incorporate hot blazes, vaginal decay, sped up skin maturing, vaginal dryness, diminished bulk, sexual brokenness, and bone misfortune. They are in enormous part identified with the reduced degrees of sex chemicals that happen during menopause. The vitally hormonal meds utilized in HRT for menopausal indications are estrogens and progestogens, among which progesterone is the major normally happening female sex chemical and furthermore a fabricated medicine utilized in menopausal chemical therapy. Though both can have suggestive advantages, progestogen is explicitly added to estrogen regimens when the uterus is as yet present. Unopposed estrogen treatment advances endometrial thickening and can expand the danger of disease, while progestogen decreases this risk. Androgens like testosterone are now and then utilized as well. HRT is accessible through a wide range of routes.

The drawn out impacts of HRT on most organ frameworks shift by age and time since the last physiological openness to chemicals, and there can be enormous contrasts in individual regimens, factors which have made examining impacts difficult. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) is a continuous investigation of more than 27,000 ladies that started in 1991, with the latest examinations proposing that, when started inside 10 years of menopause, HRT diminishes all-cause mortality and dangers of coronary illness, osteoporosis, and dementia; following 10 years the gainful consequences for mortality and coronary illness are as of now not clear, however there are diminished dangers of hip and vertebral cracks and an expanded danger of venous thromboembolism when taken orally. Bioidentical chemical substitution is an improvement in the 21st century and utilizations fabricated mixtures with "the very same synthetic and sub-atomic construction as chemicals that are created in the human body. These are chiefly steroids gotten from plants and can be a part of either enlisted drug or hand crafted intensified arrangements, with the last commonly not prescribed by administrative bodies because of their absence of normalization and formal oversight [1]

Medicinal Uses

Endorsed employments of HRT in the United States incorporate transient treatment of menopausal indications like hot glimmers and vaginal decay, and avoidance of osteoporosis. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) supports HRT for suggestive help of menopausal symptoms, and backers its utilization past the age of 65 in suitable scenarios. The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) 2016 yearly gathering referenced that HRT might have a greater number of advantages than hazards in ladies before the time of 60.

An agreement well-qualified assessment distributed by The Endocrine Society expressed that when taken during perimenopause or the underlying long stretches of menopause, HRT conveys less dangers than recently distributed, and diminishes all reason mortality in most scenarios [1-3]. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has likewise delivered position explanations endorsing HRT in fitting scenarios. Ladies getting this treatment are typically post-, peri-, or precisely menopausal. Menopause is the extremely durable suspension of period coming about because of loss of ovarian follicular action, characterized as starting a year after the last normal monthly cycle. This year time point isolates menopause into right on time and late change periods known as 'perimenopause' and 'postmenopause'. Premature menopause can happen if the ovaries are precisely eliminated, as should be possible to treat ovarian or uterine disease. Demographically, by far most of information accessible is in postmenopausal American ladies with simultaneous prior conditions and a normal period of more than 60 years [2].

Menopausal symptoms

1. Hot flashes - vasomotor symptoms.

2. Vulvovaginal atrophy - atrophic vaginitis and dryness.

3. Dyspareunia - painful sexual intercourse due to vaginal atrophy and lack of lubrication.

4. Bone loss - decreased bone mineral density, which can eventually lead to osteopenia, osteoporosis, and associated fractures.

5. Decreased sexual desire.

6. Defeminization - diminished feminine fat distribution and accelerated skin aging.

Blood clots

Impacts of chemical substitution treatment on venous blood clump arrangement and potential for pneumonic embolism might shift with various estrogen and progestogen treatments, and with various portions or technique for use. Comparisons between courses of organization propose that when estrogens are applied to the skin or vagina, there is a lower hazard of blood clots, though when utilized orally, the danger of blood clusters and aspiratory embolism is increased. Skin and vaginal courses of chemical treatment are not liable to initially pass digestion, thus do not have the anabolic impacts that oral treatment has on liver blend of nutrient K-subordinate thickening components, perhaps clarifying why oral treatment might build blood cluster development [4].

Side effects

• Headache

• Upset stomach, stomach cramps or bloating

• Diarrhoea

• Appetite and weight changes

• Changes in sex drive or performance

• Nervousness

• Brown or black patches on the skin

• Acne


• Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding

• Severe liver disease

• Pregnancy

• Severe coronary artery disease

• Aggressive breast, uterine or ovarian cancer [4]


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